Can You Hear the Femur Play? Bone Audio Speakers at the Nanoscale

This paper describes the research process involved in making audio speakers out of cow bone. The paper begins by discussing the conceptual basis of the work. It goes on to explain the piezoelectric nature of the bone matrix and how this makes it possible for bone to operate as an audio speaker. It then chronicles the process of working from a theoretical possibility to a functional speaker. In the concluding section of the paper, the final artifacts and conceptual outcomes of the process are discussed.

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